All Intelligence is Collective Intelligence


Recommended citation: Falandays, J. B., Kaaronen, R. O., Moser, C. J., Rorot, W., Tan, J., Varma, V., … Youngblood, M. All Intelligence is Collective Intelligence. Submitted.

Humans regularly solve complex problems in cooperative teams. A wide range of mechanisms have been identified that improve the quality of solutions achieved by those teams upon reaching consensus. We argue that all of these mechanisms work via increasing the transient diversity solutions while the group attempts to reach a consensus. These mechanisms can operate at the level of individual psychology (e.g., behavioral inertia), interpersonal communication (e.g., transmission noise), or group structure (e.g., sparse social networks). Transient diversity can be increased by widening the search space of possible solutions or by slowing the diffusion of information and delaying consensus. All of these mechanisms increase the quality of the solution at the cost of increased time to reach it. We review specific mechanisms that facilitate transient diversity and synthesize evidence from both empirical studies and diverse formal models—including multi-armed bandits, NK landscapes, cumulative innovation models, and evolutionary transmission models. Apparent exceptions to this principle occur primarily when problems are sufficiently simple that they can be solved by mere trial and error, or when the incentives of team members are insufficiently aligned. This work has implications for our understanding of collective intelligence, problem solving, innovation, and cumulative cultural evolution.

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